Objects of this class abstract path-manipulation algorithms for the host operating system.

Methods from this class are purely computational and never trigger any syscall. They only operate on the in-memory representation of a path. They do not perform any operation on the filesytem. They do not initiate any I/O request.

Paths are immutable. Any operation on a path will return a new path with the result.


new() → path

new()    (1)
new(str) (2)
1 Default constructor.
2 Create a path from an UTF-8 encoded string (in the host system format).

from_generic(source: string) → path

Creates a path from the generic non-native format.

to_generic(self) → string

Returns the path in the generic format encoded in UTF-8.

iterator(self) → function

Returns an iterator to the path components (as strings). The iteration order follows:

  1. The root name, if any.

  2. The root directory, if any.

  3. The sequence of file names, omitting directory separators.

  4. If there is a directory separator after the last file name in the path, the last element is an empty element.

make_preferred(self) → path

Returns a new path where all directory separators are converted to the preferred directory separator.

On Windows, where "\" is the preferred separator, the path "foo/bar" will be converted to "foo\bar".

remove_filename(self) → path

Returns a new path where the filename component is removed.

replace_filename(self, replacement: string|path) → path

Returns a new path where the filename component is replaced.

replace_extension(self[, replacement: string|path]) → path

Returns a new path where the extension is replaced (or removed on nil).

lexically_normal(self) → path

Returns a new path converted to normal form.

lexically_relative(self, base: string|path) → path

Returns a new path where self is made relative to base.

lexically_proximate(self, base: string|path) → path

Same as above if the return is non empty. Same as self, otherwise.


root_name: string

Returns the root name, or an empty path.

root_directory: string

Returns the root directory, or an empty path.

root_path: path

Returns / root_directory.

relative_path: path

Returns path relative to root_path.

parent_path: path

Returns the path to the parent directory.

filename: string

Returns filename component.

stem: string

Returns filename component stripped of its extension.

extension: string

Returns the extension of the filename component.

empty: boolean

Whether the path is empty.

has_root_path: boolean

Whether the root path is non-empty.

has_root_name: boolean

Whether the root name is non-empty.

has_root_directory: boolean

Whether the root directory is non-empty.

has_relative_path: boolean

Whether relative path is non-empty.

has_parent_path: boolean

Whether the parent path is non-empty.

has_filename: boolean

Whether the filename is non-empty.

has_stem: boolean

Whether the stem is non-empty.

has_extension: boolean

Whether the extension is non-empty.

is_absolute: boolean

Whether the path is absolute.

is_relative: boolean

Whether the path is relative.


  • __tostring(): Encodes the native representation as UTF-8 and returns it.

  • __eq(): Compares two paths lexicographically.

  • __lt(): Compares two paths lexicographically.

  • __le(): Compares two paths lexicographically.

  • __div(): Concatenates two paths with a directory separator.

  • __concat(): Concatenates the underlying native representation of the paths (i.e. no additional directory separators are introduced). This operation may not be portable between operating systems.

Module attributes

preferred_separator: string

The preferred directory separator on the host operating system encoded in UTF-8.